(hi)Story Of Male Sex Hormone: Testosterone
MISUSE OF TESTOSTERONE: Charlatans and profiteers tainted the concept of hypogonadism and its treatment with repercussions lasting until this day. Alvaro Morales
- Nobel Prize Winners for Male Sex Hormone
- father of Sex Hormones: Chemistry Professor Butenandt
- Thoughts On Act Of Creation: Creativity and the Creator
- How Male Sex Hormone Testosterone was used and abused
- Source Acknowledgement Further Reading copyright
- Story of Use and Abuse of Male Sex Hormone at a glance
Professor Adolf Butenandt is the forgotten father of the Female and Male Sex Hormones.
Nobel Prize Winners for Male Sex Hormone
Male Sex Hormone, Cholesterol, and Female Sex Hormone are structurally similar.
The hormone, which is produced by the human body in both men and women, was made in the laboratory from male urine for the first time by Professor Adolf Butenandt and independently elsewhere from studies of plants by Ruzicka.
Butenandt started with male urine, or alternatively its chloroform extract. The male hormone behaved in many respects like oestrone.
Professor Ruzicka didn’t start with male urine. Professor Ruzicka was studying the natural odorants occurring in musk and civet, muscone and civetone, little known until then. Ruzicka obtained fundamentally new and surprising results during the years 1924-1926.
Among the many interesting results obtained by Ruzicka and his collaborators with sex hormones, the preparation of compounds with the same action as male sex hormones is of signal importance.
When the purification of male urine had been successfully accomplished by Professor Adolf Butenandt, there presented for the first time a crystalline substance with the physiological properties of a male sex hormone.
Professor Adolf Butenandt gave the substance he discovered the name androsterone and defined its composition as C19H30O2. The male sex hormone (testosterone) differs from the female sex hormone (oestrone) only in the additional content of 1 methyl group and 5 hydrogen atoms. Professor Adolf Butenandt drew up the full constitutional formula in 1934 on the basis of the formula of cholesterol.
The development in the chemistry of the oestrogenic hormones could not take place until the purely biological discoveries by Allen and Doisy in 1923 and by Aschheim and Zondek in 1927 had been made.
FATHER OF SEX HORMONES: Chemistry Professor Butenandt
In 1932, Butenandt was able, from observations made in spectral analysis, and especially on the basis of the then established correct formula of cholesterol to draw up the formulae of the chemical structure of oestrone and oestriol.
The second important ovarian hormone, the corpus luteum hormone, was by various workers obtained in crystalline form from corpus luteum in 1931 and 1932. In 1934, Butenandt and Westphal succeeded in producing this hormone, which was given the name progesterone, in a chemically pure form.
It made a great stir when in 1935 Laqueur and his collaborators isolated from testicular extract a highly active hormone testosterone.
The close relationship of testosterone to androsterone made it comparatively easy to clarify its chemical composition, and still in the same year 1935 Ruzicka and Butenandt were able, in the same way but independently of each other, to obtain testosterone from trans-dehydro-androsterone.
Thoughts On Act Of Creation: Creativity and the Creator
The time has to be ripe for an invention or discovery to come. Then ideas like seeds germinate. We call this creativity. Is it not spurred by the Creator, or the cosmic intelligence operating at subconscious levels? Breakthroughs come to prepared mind, fertile and equipped to fructify the creative idea.
Nobel Prize for the Male Sex Hormone
Professor Adolf Butenandt was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1939, for his work on sex hormones. Owing to political conditions at the time, Professor Butenandt was prevented from accepting the prize. In 1949 he received the gold medal and the diploma.
Professor L. Ruzicka was awarded half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1939, for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes. Owing to the war conditions Professor Ruzicka attended the ceremonies later in 1945.
How Male Sex Hormone Testosterone was used and abused
In the long and tortuous history of the discovery of the male sex hormone Testosterone and its subsequent clinical application authors Alvaro Morales and colleagues bring to light how charlatans, quacks, misused and abused testosterone in the name of hypogonadism. It is continuing till date.
The Long and Tortuous History of the Discovery of Testosterone and Its Clinical Application
– Alvaro Morales – 2013 – The Journal of Sexual Medicine – Wiley Online Library
Morales A. The long and tortuous history of the discovery of testosterone and its clinical application. J Sex Med ;:–.
Story of Testosterone Use and Abuse at a glance
Alvaro Morales in the 2013 – The Journal of Sexual Medicine – Wiley Online Library narrates:
There is a robust body of literature dealing with testicular function for the period starting in the late 1800s. It is illustrative to learn the painful efforts of many well-intentioned and honest scientists with more conviction and determination than knowledge. Among them, unfortunately, a number of charlatans and profiteers tainted the concept of hypogonadism and its treatment with repercussions lasting until this day. The discovery and synthesis of testosterone represent the effort of brilliant minds (two Nobel Prizes) in various countries and frequently working for the pharmaceutical industry.
Acknowledgement Source Copyright Further Reading
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Volume 10, Issue 4, pages 1178–1183, April 2013